In this paper, a two-layer predictive energy management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles without an external recharge is introduced. The low-level layer exploits telemetry data over a short-term horizon in a model predictive control structure that provides the engine torque, but also the stop-start decision. The upper layer uses a tuning mechanism with a longer horizon to calculate the MPC weighting factor that ensures a balance between the fuel and battery consumption. An analysis of this upper-level tuning prediction horizon dependence on the drive cycle characteristics is performed. The robustness with respect to state-of-charge and engine torque estimation is also proven by a sensitivity analysis.
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